Q: A lot of your work and ideas focus on intersecting forms of oppression—class, patriarchy, colonialism. How do you overcome those oppressive forces? How can you convince someone to cede authority or resources?
Nawal-El-Saadwi-[Laughs.] Well, it’s very difficult. This is everyone’s struggle—whether against men in the family, or against capitalism. It’s power. I don’t think that people in power can be convinced by words or articles. They will never give it up by choice. Even a husband in the house, no—power has to be taken with power. Mubarak resigned because the people showed their power. If it had been only a few hundred protesters, he would never go, but because it was 20 million, the whole country, he had no choice. You can’t eradicate power with weakness. Knowledge and unity—these were power in the hands of the people.
Within a household, the individual woman must have power. It’s not easy—it means political rights, economic independence, knowledge. A lot of women are afraid of loneliness, so when they see a woman who can live alone, then they think, “Hmm, I can do that.” But you need an example, and that is why I am proud to say I have divorced three husbands.
Q: This idea, especially when it comes to women’s rights, that, “Okay, well, things are moving forward. Women are better off than they used to be.” Do you think we’re rethinking whether that is always true right now?
Margaret Atwood : Well, there’s no such thing as inevitable progress. And it always has been true and always will be true that rights did not descend out of the sky. Rights are things that people agree on, and they end up agreeing on them because people work to get them to agree. So they can always change their minds. They say, “Well, this has gone too far. We certainly can’t have high heels; let’s abolish them.” Or whatever it may be. And people are prone in times of crisis, turmoil, and social unrest … to limiting things. Because it makes them feel safer.
So there’s no inevitability about it. And you can’t have human rights for women unless you have human rights. Think of that. You cannot. Because unless you decide that women are some class of nonhuman beings and should have special treatment, then you have to have a general category of human rights, which includes women as human beings.
Source : https://www.vox.com/conversations/2017/4/26/15435378/margaret-atwood-handmaids-tale-interview
INTERVIEWER: The social position of Arab women differs from that of women in Japan or in Europe and North America. What are your views on these differences?
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KARMAN: I don’t think that there is anywhere in the world where women are provided with adequate rights. If you look at the level of political decision-making, you’ll find that only a small number of women hold such important positions as the head of state, foreign minister, or the minister of defense or finance. And there are relatively few parliamentary members, either. Only a few countries can be said to have succeeded to some extent in supporting women, whereas the general situation for women in the world is one of oppression. And women are even more oppressed in the conservative, Arab states of the Middle East in particular.
At the 2012 Munich Security Conference, the only two women participating were Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and myself. At the event, I made the statement that I was now able to understand why war and strife cannot be eliminated in the world: it was because no women were involved in the decision-making in such important positions as defense minister.
Although women are oppressed everywhere, it is true that the circumstances are different from country to country. In Arab countries, we can see the path toward overcoming oppression coming into view. The most important point in this respect is not to seek rights from the powers that be, but to win those rights on our own. During the Arab Spring, when women decided to stand on the front lines of the revolution, they didn’t ask anyone’s permission first. And when the men later joined in, the women made their own political decisions and drove out the old regime, demonstrating the ability to safeguard themselves and others from oppression and dictatorial rule. This was because women were able to open up a path to the future. If women actually hold tight to their principles, they can win acceptance from society and lead a revolution. Our revolution was an important moment for showing that Arab women have the ability to participate in politics and be leaders.
Now we are in a transitional stage, and the tasks facing each country are different, but the trend is toward improvements. The percentage of women holding parliamentary seats and important government posts is on the rise. But achieving gains on that front is not our only aim in Yemen. Rather, what we really want is for as many women to participate in politics as have participated in our revolutionary social change. And we also want our rights to be inscribed in the constitution and the laws.
Source : http://www.nippon.com/en/people/e00070/